VÝVOJ VÍN

História slovenského vinohradníctva a vinárstva

Archeologické nálezy – 7 vinohradníckych nožov zo 6. – 7. st. p.n.l. – svedčia o tom, že ako prvé na tomto území vinič pestovalo keltské obyvateľstvo, vyrábalo víno a vyvážalo ho ako luxusný tovar do severnejších oblastí. Po nich prichádzajú na toto územie Rimania, ktorí založili vinohrady na svahoch Malých Karpát pred dvetisíc rokmi a vinič hroznorodý sa začína pestovať intenzívnejšie.

Ušľachtilé druhy viniča hroznorodého priniesli Rimania za panovania cisára Marca Aurélia Próba /276-282 nl./ a po príchode prvých Slovanov na naše územie bolo už vinohradníc-tvo a vinárstvo dobre rozvinuté.

V rozvoji vinohradníctva sa pokračovalo až do 13. storočia, kedy kvôli ničivému vpádu Tatárov bola väčšina vinohradov zničená. V 15. storočí po príchode kolonizátorov – Nemcov na západe a Talianov na území dnešnej oblasti Tokaj – začalo pestovanie viniča mimoriadne rozkvitať. Vinohrady sa v tomto období vyskytovali s výnimkou Oravy takmer na celom Slovensku. Okrem v súčasnosti známych oblastí Malokarpatskej, Južnoslovenskej, Stredoslovenskej, Nitrianskej, Východoslovenskej a Tokaji aj na Liptove (Ružomberok), na Spiši (Levoča), na severovýchodnom Slovensku (Prešov, Bardejov) a inde. Avšak až 70 % celkového množstva vína predaného na Slovensku pochádzalo zo západného Slovenska a Hontu. Mimoriadne postavenie v tomto období mala Bratislava, predovšetkým vďaka Dunajskej obchodnej ceste. Bratislava sa považuje za najstaršiu vinohradnícku obec na Slovensku. Písomné záznamy o pestovaní viniča v jej okolí sa datujú do rokov 997-1038. Začiatkom 15.storočia, konkrétne v roku 1435, je v Bratislave zaevidovaných 474 vinohradníckych rodín, ktoré vlastnia 2 003 viníc, rozložených na 114 vinohradníckych záhonov (gruntoch). Títo vinohradníci vyprodukovali v spomenutom roku 226 952,5 okovov vína, t.j. cca 15 356 hl vína podliehajúceho desiatkovej dani. Vznikla tradícia platenia deviatkov, desiatkov, pozemkových daní z viníc a z produkcie mestám a panovníkom. Takéto hospodárstvo napomáhalo rozvoju remesiel. Mestá vďaka tomu získavali rôzne privilégiá a slobody.

Do konca 15. storočia vznikajú vinohradnícke cechy, právo výčapu a dedia sa zvyky pestovania a výroby vína. V druhej polovici 16. storočia dosiahla výroba vína na našom území 650 až 700 tis. hl vína ročne pri počte obyvateľstva asi 1 milión. Neskôr v 16. a 17. storočí, pravdepodobne pod vplyvom nerentability, sa od pestovania hrozna v tak veľkom geografickom rozložení upustilo a začiatkom novoveku sa u nás vinohradníctvo rozvíjalo už v obmedzenom regióne, v ktorom je známe aj dnes. Pokles vo vinohradníckej produkcii pokračoval po celú dobu 18. a 19.storočia aj pod vplyvom novozavlečených chorôb (pere-nospóra) a škodcov (fyloxéra) až do 20. rokov minulého storočia (obdobie hospodárskej krízy) a medzivoj­nového obdobia do 60. rokov. Najväčší plošný rozvoj vinohradníctva sa zaznamenal v 60-tych až 80-tych rokoch 20. storočia, bol však poznamenaný kolektivizáciou a masovou produkciou bez ohľadu na kvalitu.
V porovnaní s rokom 1945, kedy sa vinič pestoval na ploche 15 250 ha, vzrástli jeho pestovateľské plochy v roku 1985 na 32 140 ha. Za ostatných dvadsať rokov zaznamenalo vinohradnícke odvetvie značný prepad v plošných výmerách, pričom dnes predstavuje zberová plocha len necelých 10 000 ha. Na pestovanie hrozna a výrobu vína sa v súčasnosti používajú najmodernejšie technológie, ktoré v spojení
s historickými znalosťami a tradíciou umožňujú výrobu vysoko kvalitných vín.

Výroba vína v SR

Plocha vinohradov 22 000 ha
Spotreba vína na osobu a rok 12,5 l
Výroba vína 400 000 hl
Celková spotreba 600 000 hl

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